This article is about law enforcement organizations. Department of Police” redirects here. Law enforcement, however, constitutes only part of policing activity. Policing has included an array of activities intelligence led policing essay different situations, but the predominant ones are concerned with the preservation of order.
The police force is usually a public sector service, meaning they are paid through taxes. The word police is most universal and can be seen in many non-English speaking countries. One of the oldest, “cop”, has largely lost its slang connotations and become a common colloquial term used both by the public and police officers to refer to their profession. In Jin, dozens of prefects were spread across the state, each having limited authority and employment period.
They were appointed by local magistrates, who reported to higher authorities such as governors, who in turn were appointed by the emperor, and they oversaw the civil administration of their “prefecture”, or jurisdiction. Under each prefect were “subprefects” who helped collectively with law enforcement in the area. Some prefects were responsible for handling investigations, much like modern police detectives. Prefects could also be women. The concept of the “prefecture system” spread to other cultures such as Korea and Japan. Other duties associated with modern policing, such as investigating crimes, were left to the citizens themselves.
Local watchmen were hired by cities to provide some extra security. There was no concept of public prosecution, so victims of crime or their families had to organize and manage the prosecution themselves. Their duties included apprehending thieves and robbers and capturing runaway slaves. These organizations were intended to be temporary, but became a long-standing fixture of Spain.
Throughout the Middle Ages such alliances were frequently formed by combinations of towns to protect the roads connecting them, and were occasionally extended to political purposes. They adapted an existing brotherhood to the purpose of a general police acting under officials appointed by themselves, and endowed with great powers of summary jurisdiction even in capital cases. The original brotherhoods continued to serve as modest local police-units until their final suppression in 1835. Germany provided some policing in the absence of strong state institutions. The military policing responsibilities of the Marshal of France were delegated to the Marshal’s provost, whose force was known as the Marshalcy because its authority ultimately derived from the Marshal. The constabulary was regularised as a military body in 1337.
Maréchaussée was merged with the Constabulary. The resulting force was also known as the Maréchaussée, or, formally, the Constabulary and Marshalcy of France. From about 1500, private watchmen were funded by private individuals and organisations to carry out police functions. They were later nicknamed ‘Charlies’, probably after the reigning monarch King Charles II. English comes from the book “The Second Part of the Institutes of the Lawes of England” published in 1642. Paris police force, and defined the task of the police as “ensuring the peace and quiet of the public and of private individuals, purging the city of what may cause disturbances, procuring abundance, and having each and everyone live according to their station and their duties”.